In their history, the gardens of Versailles have undergone no less than five major replantations, which have been executed for practical and aesthetic reasons. (Berger, 1992; Marie, 1968, 1972, 1976; Nolhac, 1901; Thompson, 2006; Verlet, 1961, 1985; Weber, 1981), Bassin d'Apollon  Water from the pond was pumped to the reservoir on top of the Grotte de ThÃ©tys, which fed the fountains in the garden by means of gravitational hydraulics. Latona and her children, Apollo and Diana, being tormented with mud slung by Lycian peasants, who refused to let her and her children drink from their pond, appealed to Jupiter who responded by turning the Lycians into frogs. Surrounding a central area paved with colored stone, a channel was decorated with twenty statues on plinths each separated by three jets of water. 1693, "Bassin de Neptune" by Jean Cotelle, ca. The Gardens of Versailles cover some 800 hectares of land and it was landscaped in the classic French formal style by André Le Nôtre. Bosquet de l'Arc de Triomphe The gardens in the castle were intended to Built in 1675, the Bosquet de la RenommÃ©e featured a fountain statue of Fame â hence the name of the bosquet. The gardens of Louis XIII required water and local ponds provided an adequate supply. This water feature, with a surface area of more than 15 hectares, is the second largest â after the Grand Canal â at Versailles. Rachel Ruysch, Fruit and Insects. From the seat of power to a museum of the history of France. Tour directions for the official guides have survived; they are discussed by Robert W. Berger and Thomas P. Hedin, For the relation of the imagery of the garden and the decor of the, Period sources include: (Anonymous, 1685); (Dangeau, 1854-60); (FÃ©libien, 1703); (, The Clagny pond, which was located near the, Public Establishment of the Palace, Museum and National Estate of Versailles, "Versailles / Les bosquets : scÃ¨nes du pouvoir", scan of Perrault's book at the BibliothÃ¨que nationale de France, "Mazes and Labyrinths: Chapter XIV. Seeming to heed his great-grandfather's admonition not to engage in costly building campaigns, Louis XV did not undertake the costly building campaigns at Versailles that Louis XIV had. Even with the additional output from the Machine de Marly, fountains in the garden could only be run Ã l'ordinaire â which is to say at half-pressure. During the reign of Louis XVI, Hubert Robert remodeled the bosquet, creating a cave-like setting for the Marsy statues. . During this time André Le Nôtre collaborated with the likes of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Superintendant of Buildings to the King from 1664 to 1683, who managed the project, and Charles Le Brun, who was made First Painter to the King in January 1664 and provided the drawings for a large number of the statues and fountains. Access to the gardens is free of charge, except for Fountain Show and Musical Gardens â¦ The park and gadens are open every day. , With Louis XIII's final purchase of lands from Jean-FranÃ§ois de Gondi in 1632 and his assumption of the seigneurial role of Versailles in the 1630s, formal gardens were laid out west of the chÃ¢teau. Dating from the time of Louis XIV and still using much of the same network of hydraulics as was used during the Ancien RÃ©gime, the fountains contribute to making the gardens of Versailles unique. Versailles was designed as a palatial centre of government for an absolute monarch, Louis XIV. When in play, this fountain has the tallest jet of all the fountains in the gardens of Versailles â 25 metres (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). The Gardens of Versailles The Gardens of Versailles, designed by André Le Notre, are a key component of the Royal Residence of Versailles. Located north and south of the eastâwest axis, these two bosquets were arranged as a series of paths around four salles de verdure and which converged on a central "room" that contained a fountain. Most significant among the creations at this time were the Versailles Orangerie and the "Grotte de ThÃ©tys". Bosquet of the Salle de Bal, contemporary view. Gardens of Versailles Plan view of the gardens of Versailles From 1661, Le Nôtre was working for Louis XIV to build and enhance the garden and parks of the Château de Versailles. When the Versailles Gardens were complete, they included 372 statues, â¦ In 1661 Louis XIV entrusted André Le Nôtre with the creation and renovation of the gardens of Versailles, which he considered just as important as the Palace. The center of the pool featured an iron tree with painted tin leaves that sprouted water from its branches. Behind the palace, the ground falls away on every side from a terrace adorned with ornamental basins, statues, and bronze groups. The bosquet was completely remodeled in 1704 at which time it was rechristened Bosquet de l'Ãtoile (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). In 1870, a violent storm struck the area damaging and uprooting scores of trees, which necessitated a massive replantation program. Louis XVI did so at the beginning of his reign, and the undertaking was next carried out during the reign of Napoleon III. The grotto would be completed during the second building campaign. The water for the elaborate waterworks was conveyed from the Seine by the Machine de Marly. In the chÃ¢teau, a suite of rooms was arranged for the use of the empress Marie-Louise, but the gardens were left unchanged, save for the disastrous felling trees in the Bosquet de l'Arc de Triomphe and the Bosquet des Trois Fontaines. (Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985), In 1792, under order from the National Convention, some of the trees in gardens were felled, while parts of the Grand Parc were parceled and dispersed. (Verlet 1985), By 1664, the gardens had evolved to the point that Louis XIV inaugurated the gardens with the fÃªte galante called "Les Plaisirs de l'Ãle EnchantÃ©e". Etna, being consumed by volcanic lava. Beginning in 1684, the Parterre d'Eau was remodeled under the direction of Jules Hardouin-Mansart. Because of this tree, the bosquet was also known as the Bosquet du ChÃªne Vert. Designed as a simple unadorned salle de verdure by Le NÃ´tre in 1678, the landscape architect enhanced and incorporated an existing stream to create a bosquet that featured rivulets that twisted among nine islets. Pruning is also done to keep trees at between 17 and 23 metres (56 to 75 feet), so as not to spoil the carefully calibrated perspectives of the gardens.. In 1709, the bosquet was rearranged with the addition of the Fontaine de l'Ãle aux Enfants. Bosquet des Trois Fontaines (Berceau d'Eau) Arguably one of the most beautiful parks in Ile-de-France (and the world! 1693, "Bosquet des DÃ´mes" by Jean Cotelle, ca. Owing largely to the topology of the land, the English esthetic was abandoned and the gardens replanted in the French style. "L'univers de Le Nostre et les origines de l'amÃ©nagement du territoire. As AndrÃ© FÃ©libien noted in his description of Versailles, solar and apollonian themes predominated with projects constructed at this time: "Since the sun was the emblem of Louis XIV, and that poets join the sun and Apollo, there is nothing in this superb house that does not relation to this divinity. Symbolically, the "Grotte de ThÃ©tys" related to the myth of Apollo â and by that association to Louis XIV. These days, itâs difficult to imagine anythingâcertainly a gardenâenduring for nearly 300 years.
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