what is cremation

Another environmental concern is that traditional burial takes up a great deal of space. They … As one example, the Church of God (Restoration) forbids the practice of cremation, believing as the Early Church did, that it continues to be a pagan practice.[103]. For example, the body of John Wycliff was exhumed years after his death and burned to ashes, with the ashes thrown in a river,[12] explicitly as a posthumous punishment for his denial of the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. [74], Each cremation requires about 110 L (28 US gal) of fuel and releases about 240 kg (540 lb) of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. [74] Keijzer's studies also found that a cremation or burial accounts for only about a quarter of a funeral's environmental impact; the carbon emissions of people travelling to the funeral are far greater. Cremation definition is - the process of reducing a dead body to mostly tiny bits of bone resembling ash that involves exposing the body to flame and intense heat followed by pulverization of bone fragments. In some countries, including India and Nepal, cremation on an open-air pyre is an ancient tradition. [3][4] This is not actual ash but unburnt fragments of bone mineral, which are commonly ground down into powder. His son Devdas Gandhi lit the pyre.[106]. [11] Cremation was sometimes used by Catholic authorities as part of punishment for accused heretics, which included burning at the stake. [35], The Holocaust furnaces were supplied by a number of manufacturers, with the best known and most common being Topf and Sons as well as Kori Company of Berlin,[36] whose ovens were elongated to accommodate two bodies, slid inside from the back side. The term "ashes" is a bit misleading, since what families receive after a cremation isn't a soft powder, but instead a … [129] According to the National Funeral Directors Association the cremation rate in the United States in 2016 was 50.2 percent and this was expected to increase to 63.8 percent by 2025 and 78.8 percent in 2035. These people view a traditional ground burial as an unneeded complication of their funeral process, and thus choose cremation to make their services as simple as possible. Delivery-only allows crematoria to schedule cremations to make best use of the cremators, perhaps by holding the body overnight in a refrigerator, allowing a lower fee to be charged. (Genesis 3: 19) Cremation speeds … Through history and up to the philosophical movements of the current era Modern Orthodox, Orthodox, Haredi, and Hasidic movements in Judaism have maintained the historical practice and strict Biblical line against cremation and disapprove of it, as Halakha (Jewish law) forbids it. Incorporates the benefits … [10], In parts of Europe, cremation was forbidden by law, and even punishable by death if combined with Heathen rites. Prev NEXT. [109] The last rite of passage returns the body to the five elements and origins. [clarification needed] But when a cremation is specifically and willfully chosen for no good cause by the one who is deceased, he or she is not permitted a funeral in the church and may also be permanently excluded from burial in a Christian cemetery and liturgical prayers for the departed. This may be an anachronism, as during Mycenaean times burial was generally preferred, and Homer may have been reflecting the more common use of cremation at the time the Iliad was written, centuries later. [citation needed], In early Roman Britain, cremation was usual but diminished by the 4th century. [19], The first crematorium in the Western World opened in Milan, Italy in 1876. [44], A cremator is not designed to cremate more than one human body at a time. [44] The time required for cremation varies from body to body, with the average being 90 minutes for an adult body. But, if youre unfamiliar with the process and how it works, you may want to learn more about cremation before you choose it for yourself or your loved one. What is cremation? Delivery-only is sometimes called west chapel service in industry jargon. Cremation is a more simple disposition method to plan than a burial funeral. However, after protests and an intervention by the Home Secretary, Sir Richard Cross, their plans were put on hold. [8] Romans practiced both, with cremation the rule until the later imperial period. Many people are turning to cremation as the body disposition of choice. The default container used by most crematoria, when nothing more expensive has been selected, is usually a hinged, snap-locking plastic box. [107][109][110] The roots of this belief are found in the Vedas, for example in the hymns of Rigveda in section 10.16, as follows: Burn him not up, nor quite consume him, Agni: let not his body or his skin be scattered, Cremation taking place at Pashupatinath Temple. "USA." Several implanted devices are required to be removed. Beginning in the Middle Ages, and even more so in the 18th century and later, non-Christian rationalists and classicists began to advocate cremation again as a statement denying the resurrection and/or the afterlife,[87] although the pro-cremation movement often took care to address these concerns. Cremated remains can now also be converted to diamonds. These furnaces, based around a design commonly used for hospital incinerators, instead vented the gasses down through a series of ducts embedded in the floor, with the help of a draft fan located at the far end of the structure. [citation needed] Reusable or cardboard coffins are becoming popular, with several manufacturers now supplying them. Through this method, an open-hearth furnace can reach temperatures high enough to melt steel, and this process made cremation an efficient and practical proposal. Credo Reference. Chur-Hansen, Anna. [50] It is recommended that jewellery be removed before the coffin is sealed, for this reason. Neo-Confucianism under Zhu Xi strongly discourages cremation of one's parents' corpses as unfilial. They may also be sold as precious metal scrap. [59] There are various types of Cremulators, including rotating devices, grinders, and older models using heavy metal balls. [55] For low cost, a plain, particle-board coffin (known in the trade as a "chippie") can be used. This is sometimes done for religious reasons, such as in traditional Hindu and Jain funerals,[46] and is also customary in Japan. [75] The environmental impact may be reduced by using cremators for longer periods, and relaxing the requirement for a cremation to take place on the same day that the coffin is received, which reduces the use of fossil fuel and hence carbon emissions. Contrary to popular belief, the cremated remains are not ashes in the usual sense. In Israel there were no formal crematories until 2004 when B&L Cremation Systems Inc. became the first crematory manufacturer to sell a retort to Israel. It was attended by Jawaharlal Nehru, Lord and Lady Mountbatten, Maulana Azad, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Sarojini Naidu and other national leaders. Cremation can also release contaminants, such as mercury from dental fillings. Misconception: Cremation dishonors the body. The cremated remains are available for the owner to pick up in seven to ten business days. [120][121], During the 19th and early 20th centuries, as the Jewish cemeteries in many European towns had become crowded and were running out of space, in a few cases cremation for the first time became an approved means of corpse disposal among emerging liberal and Reform Jewish movements in line with their across the board rejection of literal scripture interpretation and traditional Torah ritual laws. Another alternative, are "green … [124], The minority Jurchen and their Manchu descendants originally practiced cremation as part of their culture. Until the Christian era, when inhumation again became the only burial practice, both combustion and inhumation had been practiced, depending on the era and location. [32], During World War II (1939–45) Nazi Germany used specially built furnaces in at least six extermination camps throughout occupied Poland including at Auschwitz-Birkenau, Chełmno, Belzec, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka, where the bodies of those murdered by gassing were disposed of using incineration. The case set a precedent that allowed the Cremation Society to proceed. N/D. Cremation cemetery options include in-ground urn burial, mausoleum entombment, cremation niches, cremation benches and pedestals, columbaria and scattering gardens. "Cremation Services." [21] In 1905, Westminster Abbey interred ashes for the first time; by 1911 the Abbey was expressing a preference for interring ashes. 1971. Factors cited include cheaper costs (especially a factor after the 2008 recession), growth in secular attitudes and declining opposition in some Christian denominations. The majority of Hindus thus dispose of their dead. Generally speaking, cremation is cheaper than a traditional burial service,[73] especially if direct cremation is chosen, in which the body is cremated as soon as legally possible without any sort of services. This is not a Biblical or Christian mode of disposing of the dead. natural gas or propane, compared to wood) and by using an incinerator (retort) (closed cabin) rather than an open fire. While individually this may not take much room, combined with other burials, it can over time cause serious space concerns. Because many changes in body composition (such as fat and muscle loss or gain) do not affect the weight of cremated remains, the weight of the remains can be more closely predicted from the person's height and sex (which predicts skeletal weight), than it can be predicted from the person's simple weight. [128], Operator Ray Brent Marsh had 787 criminal charges filed against him. [17] A model of Brunetti's cremating apparatus, together with the resulting ashes, was exhibited at the Vienna Exposition in 1873 and attracted great attention[18] Meanwhile, Sir Charles William Siemens had developed his regenerative furnace in the 1850s. Practices that show insufficient respect for the ashes of the dead such as turning them into jewelry or scattering them are forbidden for Catholics, but burial on land or sea or enclosing in a niche or columbarium is now acceptable.[89]. Pleistocene salinities and climatic change: Evidence from lakes and lunettes in southeastern Australia. and Golson, J. Cremation is actually possible without using a flame. This is done on the condition that the ashes must be buried or interred, not scattered. The traditional method of corpse disposal is through ritual exposure in a "Tower of Silence", but both burial and cremation are increasingly popular alternatives. .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, At present there are four crematoria in operation at BIRKENAU, two large ones, I and II, and two smaller ones, III and IV. Cremation process at Pashupatinath temple. Depending on factors like the size and weight of the body, the type … The Sikhs immerse the remains in Sutlej, usually at Sri Harkiratpur. [citation needed] The chamber where the body is placed is called a cremation chamber or retort and is lined with heat-resistant refractory bricks. In the U.S. only about one crematory per year was built in the late 19th century. Balinese funerals are very expensive and the body may be interred until the family can afford it or until there is a group funeral planned by the village or family when costs will be less. Current liberal movements like Reform Judaism still support cremation, although burial remains the preferred option.[70][122]. The body is cremated in the coffin. [40], The cremation occurs in a cremator, which is located at a crematorium or crematory. During the cremation process, the greater portion of the body (especially the organs and other soft tissues) is vaporized and oxidized by the intense heat; gases released are discharged through the exhaust system. In southern India, the ashes are immersed in the river Kaveri at Paschima vahini in Srirangapattana at a stretch where the river flows from east to west, depicting the life of a human being from sunrise to sunset. 47–65. [citation needed]. An early Methodist tract titled Immortality and Resurrection noted that "burial is the result of a belief in the resurrection of the body, while cremation anticipates its annihilation. "[91], There are no universal rules governing Catholic funeral rites in connection with cremation, but episcopal conferences have laid down rules for various countries. [54] The remains are then placed in a container called an ash capsule, which generally is put into a cinerary urn. "[86] And while there was a clear and prevailing preference for burial, there was no general Church law forbidding cremation until 1866. Fact: The Bible says that those who die return to the dust, which is what naturally happens to a corpse when it decomposes. Some denominations, like Lutheran churches in Scandinavia, favour the urns being buried in family graves. Families have expressed the desire to return the former Tri-State crematory to a natural, parklike setting. Cremation of Mahatma Gandhi at Rajghat, 31 January 1948. In Germany, the process is mostly similar to that of the United Kingdom. Terje Oestigaard, in The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial (Editors: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Information about the device's operating system, Information about other identifiers assigned to the device, The IP address from which the device accesses a client's website or mobile application, Information about the user's activity on that device, including web pages and mobile apps visited or used, Information about the geographic location of the device when it accesses a website or mobile application. Many countries where burial is traditional saw cremation rise to become a significant, if not the most common way of disposing of a dead body. The Roman Catholic Church accepted the practice more slowly. Urns for the companion animal range from $50 to $150. The reason given is that "cremains" is thought to have less connection with the deceased, whereas a loved one's "cremated remains" has a more identifiable human connection.[61]). After the funeral service, the box is removed from the shell before cremation, permitting the shell to be re-used. [123] The crematorium was rebuilt by its owner and the retort replaced. This halakhic concern is grounded in the literal interpretation of Scripture, viewing the body as created in the image of God and upholding a bodily resurrection as core beliefs of traditional Judaism. In 1963, recognizing that, in general, cremation was being sought for practical purposes and not as a denial of bodily resurrection, the choice of cremation was permitted in some circumstances. [citation needed], (Germany) A piece of fire clay used for identifying the ash after burning the dead body, (Germany) A cinerary urn. The Code of Cremation Practice[49] forbids the opening of the coffin once it has arrived at the crematorium, and rules stipulate that it must be cremated within 72 hours of the funeral service. Also know as alkaline hydrolysis or resomation, a water based cremation is proven to be much more eco friendly and sustainable. In Medieval Europe, cremation was practiced mainly in situations where there were multitudes of corpses simultaneously present, such as after a battle, after a pestilence or famine, and where there was an imminent fear of diseases spreading from the corpses, since individual burials with digging graves would take too long and body decomposition would begin before all the corpses had been interred. In Christian countries and cultures, cremation has historically been discouraged and viewed as a desecration of God’s image, and as interference with the resurrection of the dead taught in Scripture. The oldest operating crematorium in Australia is at Rookwood Cemetery, in Sydney. 11 October 2013. burial ground on Hanover Square in London, Learn how and when to remove this template message, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "The burning question – How cremation became our last act of self-determination", "The Crematorium Temple in the Monumental Cemetery in Milan", "An Unceremonious Rite; Cremation of Mrs. Ben Pitman", https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290753255_Designing_a_place_for_goodbye_The_architecture_of_crematoria_in_the_Netherlands, "In a Move Away From Tradition, Cremations Increase", https://www.cremationresource.org/cremation/how-is-a-body-cremated.html, "Project Profile of re-provisioning of Diamond Hill Crematorium", "Proposed replacement of cremators at Fu Shan Crematorium, Shatin", "This is exactly what happens to your body when it is cremated and how long it takes to burn", "The Cremation Process Guide: What You Need To Know In 2017", "Melting down hips and knees: The afterlife of implants", "Choosing a final resting place – West Herts Crematorium", "Gesetz über das Leichen-, Bestattungs- und Friedhofswesen des Landes Schleswig-Holstein (Bestattungsgesetz – BestattG) vom 4. Some religions will permit the cremated remains to be sprinkled or retained at home. O all possessing Fire, when thou hast matured him, then send him on his way unto the Fathers. The early church carried on Judaism’s respect for the human body as being created in God’s image, and followed their practices of speedy interment, in hopes of the future resurrection of all dead. J Fowler (1996), Hinduism: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press. The Sun receive thine eye, the Wind thy Prana (life-principle, breathe); go, as thy merit is, to earth or heaven. After the incineration is completed, the dry bone fragments are swept out of the retort and pulverised by a machine called a Cremulator—essentially a high-capacity, high-speed blender—to process them into "ashes" or "cremated remains",[56][57] although pulverisation may also be performed by hand. Judaism has traditionally disapproved of cremation in the past, as a rejection of the respect due to humans who are created in the image of God. Thus, the roughly 1 million bodies that are cremated annually in the United States produce about 240,000 t (270,000 short tons) of carbon dioxide, which is more CO2 pollution than 22,000 average American homes generate in a year. Breast implants do not have to be removed before cremation. Most cemeteries will grant permission for burial of cremated remains in occupied cemetery plots that have already been purchased or are in use by the families disposing of the cremated remains without any additional charge or oversight. Heavy duty cremators are usually designed with two layers of fire bricks inside the insulation layer. Aside from religious reasons (discussed below), some people find they prefer cremation over traditional burial for personal reasons. [citation needed]. [citation needed], In the United Kingdom, the body is not removed from the coffin and is not placed into a container as described above. [citation needed], Cremations can be "delivery only", with no preceding chapel service at the crematorium (although a church service may have been held) or preceded by a service in one of the crematorium chapels. Early Persians practiced cremation, but this became prohibited during the Zoroastrian Period. Cremation is the process of subjecting a dead body to intense heat and evaporation in order to reduce the organic matter to its basic elements, that is, cremated remains. As embalming became more widely accepted and used, crematories lost their sanitary edge. Cremating a Human Body: Getting Down to the Nitty Gritty. Academic Search Premier. [44] This allows the body to be quickly and safely slid into the cremator. Once outside, the gasses then rose through a free standing chimney, most notable for the fact that it was not directly attached to the structure of the building itself, nor had a visible duct leading into it. The practice of cremation on open fires was introduced to the Western world by the Greeks as early as 1000 bce. Ashes of adults can be said to weigh from 876 to 3,784 g (1 lb 15 oz to 8 lb 5 oz), with women's ashes generally weighing below 2,750 g (6 lb 1 oz) and men's ashes generally weighing above 1,887 g (4 lb 3 oz).[59]. Cremation leaves behind an average of 2.4 kg (5.3 lbs) of remains, known as "ashes" or "cremains". [111], The final rite in the case of untimely death of a child is usually not cremation but a burial. In 1873, Professor Paolo Gorini of Lodi and Professor Ludovico Brunetti of Padua published reports of practical work they had conducted. (The Cremation Association of North America prefers that the word "cremains" not be used for referring to "human cremated remains". The property of the Marsh family has been sold, but collection of the full $80-million judgment remains doubtful. "[94] Indeed, in the 1870s, the Anglican Bishop of London stated that the practice of cremation would "undermine the faith of mankind in the doctrine of the resurrection of the body, hasten rejection of a Scriptural worldview and so bring about a most disastrous social revolution. Cultural groups had their own preferences and prohibitions. This was also widely adopted by Semitic peoples. [81], Christians preferred to bury the dead rather than to cremate the remains, as was common in Roman culture. [18] He joined with other proponents to form the Cremation Society of Great Britain in 1874. Authorities had difficulties dealing with the large numbers of bodies, and as a result, thousands of bodies were cremated together out of fear that decaying bodies would cause disease. The Old and New Testament agree and take for granted that as the body was taken originally from the earth, so it is to return to the earth again. “Everybody will die, but very few … Marsh was sentenced to two 12-year prison sentences, one each from Georgia and Tennessee, to be served concurrently; he was also sentenced to probation for 75 years following his incarceration. In the 1960s and 1970s, there was an unprecedented phase of crematorium construction in the United Kingdom[15] and the Netherlands. It is now acceptable to some denominations, since a literal interpretation of Scripture is less common. Cremation may serve as a funeral or post-funeral rite and as an alternative to the burial or interment of an intact dead body. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) has, in past decades, discouraged cremation without expressly forbidding it. After the remains are processed, smaller bits of metal such as tooth fillings, and rings (commonly known as gleanings) are sieved out and may be later interred in common, consecrated ground in a remote area of the cemetery. The Roman catacombs and Medieval veneration of relics of Roman Catholic saints witness to this preference. In addition, he believed, cremation would prevent premature burial, reduce the expense of funerals, spare mourners the necessity of standing exposed to the weather during interment, and urns would be safe from vandalism. The deceased was Jeanette Pickersgill, a well-known figure in literary and scientific circles. Australians had their first purpose-built modern crematorium and chapel in the West Terrace Cemetery in the South Australian capital of Adelaide in 1901. When cremation is finished, the remains are passed through a magnetic field to remove any metal, which will be interred elsewhere in the crematorium grounds or, increasingly, recycled. Bowler, J.M. or less pet is $110 while 23 kg (51 lb). In many countries, the crematorium is a venue for funerals as well as cremation. Cremation is the process of burning a dead body at very high temperatures until there are only brittle, calcified bones left, which are then pulverized into "ashes." In the United States, the cremated remains are almost always contained in a thick watertight polyethylene plastic bag contained within a hard snap-top rectangular plastic container, which is labeled with a printed paper label. Cremation in India is first attested in the Cemetery H culture (from c. 1900 BCE), considered the formative stage of Vedic civilization. Alternative death rituals emphasizing one method of disposal of a body—inhumation (burial), cremation, or exposure—have gone through periods of preference throughout history. A family grave can thus contain urns of many generations and also the urns of spouses and loved ones. In Japan and Taiwan, the remaining bone fragments are given to the family and are used in a burial ritual before final interment. In East Asian countries such as China, Japan or Taiwan, the bones are not pulverised, unless requested beforehand. An unavoidable consequence of cremation is that a tiny residue of bodily remains is left in the chamber after cremation and mixes with subsequent cremations. Sanburn, Josh. One service sends a lipstick-tube sized sample of the cremated remains into low earth orbit, where they remain for years (but not permanently) before reentering the atmosphere. [97] The first crematoria in the Protestant countries were built in the 1870s, and in 1908, the Dean and Chapter of Westminster Abbey—one of the most famous Anglican churches—required that remains be cremated for burial in the abbey's precincts. The basic sealed plastic container bag may be contained within a further cardboard box or velvet sack, or they may be contained within an urn if the family had already purchased one. To give you an idea of average cremation costs, here is a table (provided by parting.com) which shows the range of prices in different cities).. As you can see, the typical cost of a basic cremation … In August 2007, an orthodox youth group in Israel was accused of burning down the country's sole crematorium, which they see as an affront to God. Some individuals use a very small amount of the remains in tattoo ink, for remembrance portraits. In Japan, more than 465 companion animal temples are in operation. Cremation is the process by which a body is exposed to extreme heat, usually 1800 - 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for two hours or more. Burning ghats of Manikarnika, at Varanasi, India. Inside is typically a layer of insulation brick, mostly calcium silicate in nature. Web. The samskara above shows the body wrapped in saffron red on a pyre. Anthropologists have been able to track the advance of Christianity throughout Europe with the appearance of cemeteries. Islam strictly forbids cremation. [16] These movements were associated with secularism and gained a following in cultural and intellectual circles. [citation needed], The rise of Christianity saw an end to cremation in Europe, though it may have already been in decline. [citation needed] Modern cremators automatically monitor their interior to tell when the cremation process is complete and have a spyhole so that an operator can see inside. Traditionally, Zoroastrianism disavows cremation or burial to preclude pollution of fire or earth. Cremation is a dignified way of honoring a life well lived. [22] In 1888, 28 cremations took place at the venue. [68] The cremated remains may also be entombed. Februar 2005, §17 Abs. Additionally, if the departed was a court servant, member of the court or minor noble, the cremation can be postponed up to several years to coincide with the cremation of their Prince. [15] In Italy, the movement was associated with anti-clericalism and Freemasonry, whereas these were not major themes of the movement in Britain. In Anglican and Nordic Protestant countries, cremation gained acceptance (though did not yet become the norm) first by the higher classes and cultural circles, and then by the rest of the population. In Australia, pet owners can purchase services to have their companion animal cremated and placed in a pet cemetery or taken home. 16 September 2013. Because the weight of dry bone fragments is so closely connected to skeletal mass, their weight varies greatly from person to person. Some crematoria allow relatives to view the charging. They do not constitute a health risk and may be buried, interred in a memorial site, retained by relatives or scattered in various ways. [20][21], Sir Henry Thompson, 1st Baronet, a surgeon and Physician to the Queen Victoria, had seen Gorini's cremator at the Vienna Exhibition and had returned home to become the first and chief promoter of cremation in England. Methods to reduce fuel consumption/fuel cost include the use of different fuels (i.e. The custom became dominant throughout Bronze Age Europe with the Urnfield culture (from c. 1300 BCE). It … Hinduism and Jainism are notable for not only allowing but prescribing cremation. of the deceased to immerse the cremated remains in the holy river Ganges, preferably at one of the holy cities Triveni Sangam, Allahabad, Varanasi, or Haridwar in India. Starting in the 19th century, cremation was introduced or reintroduced into other parts of the world. chevrons-left. [109] The soul (Atman, Brahman) is the essence and immortal that is released at the Antyeshti ritual, but both the body and the universe are vehicles and transitory in various schools of Hinduism. [41] Modern cremator fuels include oil,[42] natural gas, propane, and, in Hong Kong, coal gas. Death is normally a difficult topic we all avoid discussing, because it is uncomfortable and painful. Time 181.24 (2013): 30. Cremation is the process of burning a dead body into ashes. The mean weight of an adult's remains is 2.4 kg (5.3 lb); the mean weight for adult males is about 1 kg (2.2 lb) higher than that for adult females. But even cremation is far from perfect in terms of sustainability. Cremation funerals only require planning the transportation of the body to a crematorium, cremation of the body, and a cremation urn.[72]. 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And put on hold most independent Bible churches, Holiness churches and those of Anabaptist will... Zoroastrianism disavows cremation or burial to preclude pollution of fire or earth, may require an opaque non-transparent! So that fuel and air quality standards after protests and an intervention the. A child is typically a layer of insulation brick, mostly calcium silicate in nature furnaces, each having openings... As one might do with ashes leaves behind an average of 2.4 kg ( 50 )... Of Latter-day saints ( LDS Church ) has, in the late 19th century urn cemetery '' the corpse his! Man and environment in Australia, the first to advocate for the animal. On trial for attempting to cremate his son 's body Buddhism, Jainism, time... As an alternative to the Christian mind implants do not have to be the deliberate desecration and of. In both ancient Greece and ancient Rome be converted to diamonds cremation follow! States what is cremation law does not dictate any container requirements for cremation are available for the of! Grinders, and older models using heavy metal balls an Orthodox organization following historical traditional... Tri-State crematory to a natural, physical process of burning a dead body into ashes to Herodotus embalmed...

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