how did the vietnam draft work

Why did the draft anger many Americans? Born in November 1942, Biden came of age amid the Vietnam War. If canon fodder was needed they would be selected at random for 2 years service. Your chances were less than 1 in four. pp. The World War I Draft Topic Page on the Library of Congress Chronicling America website provides examples of newspapers as major vehicles for notification of draft registration days and regulations. Japan had ruled the country since 1940, and France had ruled it since 1887. Citations for this page (individual document citations are at the full document links). In November 1965, draftees are leacing Ann Arbor, MI to be processed and sent to basic training camps. Indeed, his biggest-selling album, Born In The U.S.A., became a symbol of patriotism in the 1980s. But unlike millions of … … The draft was abolished in 1973. When did the military draft end? A need for more manpower upon America’s deeper involvement in the Vietnam war in 1965, made President Johnson bring in conscription. I don't think I believe that, in which case, interesting that either he was repeating an official denial or genuinely believed that this was an urban legend. Requirements for registration varied over the decades, ranging from eligible age ranges beginning at 21 and eventually lowering to age 18. Indeed, his biggest-selling album, Born In The U.S.A., became a symbol of patriotism in the 1980s. But unlike millions of … How did the draft work? What temperature (in °C) is required to maintain the same volume if the pressure decreases to 1.39 atm? Selective Service inductionstatistics during the VietnamWar era. Second, Ayers pointed out that an all-volunteer military has created a poor man’s army, because enlistment is attractive to individuals who have no other options because they are poor or uneducated. . 1. A lottery drawing – the first since 1942 – was held on December 1, 1969, at Selective Service National Headquarters in Washington, D.C. How did the Vietnam draft work prior to the first lottery in December 1969? (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993), esp. The car accident would have been covered in the local newspaper. Significant draft avoidance was taking place even before the U.S. became heavily involved in the Vietnam War.The large cohort of Baby Boomers allowed for a steep increase in the number of exemptions and deferments, especially for college and graduate students. Ask MetaFilter is a question and answer site that covers nearly any question on earth, where members help each other solve problems. During the Vietnam War, the U.S. Conscription in the United States, commonly known as the draft, has been employed by the federal government of the United States in six conflicts: the American Revolutionary War, the American Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War.The fourth incarnation of the draft came into being in 1940 through the Selective Training and Service Act. The draft existed before the Vietnam War. See answer bonnielove is waiting for your help. On December 1, 1969, the first draft lottery since 1942 began, but college deferments were kept intact. This resulted in uncertainty for the potential draftees during the entire time they were within the draft-eligible age group. The draft determined the “order of call” for 1970 for all men of draft age, which included all men born in the years 1944 through 1950. How the new law will work. I don't know the particulars of the draft but FWIW, a family friend told us a similar story about enlisting in the late sixties. If December 2nd was the next selected, those people would have a draft number 2. The best I can remember - he had a shotgun wedding at 19 but then ran out on her. To celebrate Ken Burns' 2017 documentary, "The Vietnam War," PBS and USAToday created a Vietnam War Draft Lottery calculator. 35-40; Christian G. Appy, Working-Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam. LBJ started his address by quoting a letter from an American mother asking why her son had to serve in Vietnam for a cause that she did not understand. Biden received five student draft deferments and a medical exemption. In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson changed the draft law to allow married males to be drafted, if they didn’t have children. Bruce Springsteen is a man who needs little introduction. College undergraduate and graduate students were automatically awarded draft … They still are. Buffeted by protests against the war and the unfairness of the draft system, which also took a disproportionate number of African-American men, President Richard Nixon sought to reform the draft. In July 1965, at the beginning of this steady escalation, President Johnson attempted to explain the need for increased military intervention in Vietnam in a press conference announcing that draft inductions would increase from 17,000 to 35,000 per month. . It went from WWII to Vietnam. They still are. pp. Don't know if the intent was to weed out people who were claiming to be in college when they were clearly incapable of the work, or to "preserve" the better students. Add your answer and earn points. Resistance to the draft, as managed by the Selective Service in the United States, reached a historic peak during the Vietnam War. Lyndon Johnson ran as the “peace” candidate in his 1964 campaign against conservative Barry Goldwater, who wanted to escalate the military offensive against North Vietnam and the Viet Cong guerillas. Before the lottery was implemented in the latter part of the Vietnam conflict, Local Boards called men classified 1-A, 18 1/2 through 25 years old, oldest first. Selective Service System did radio and TV broadcasts of draft lottery numbers. Thanks! During the Korean War, the Selective Service began the policy … Other. Legal authority for a peacetime draft came from the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, signed by President Franklin Roosevelt in order to mobilize American civilian-soldiers in anticipation of entry into World War II. Something in the neighborhood of 9 million men and women served during that era. Lyndon B. Johnson, “The President’s News Conference: Why Are We in Vietnam?” July 28, 1965, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, 1965, Book II, pp. this has nothing to do with the rumors of the U.S. using it again since i know they wont unless all aout war was declared with half the world. Johnson quietly changed the rules to keep up with the demands of the war. Many have been digitized and are available online. 1-43 (quotation p. 27). Selective Service System, “Induction Statistics, , accessed April 26, 2015. Nevertheless, even his most popular work is often misrepresented. President Lyndon B. Johnsonincreased the number of U.S. personnel in South Vietnam due to the political instability in the c… The draft received even more resistance as dissenters became more frustrated with the system. Coming of age doesn’t come close to holding the same meaning as it did for the nearly 72 million “baby boomers” born into the Vietnam era draft. The war had arisen from a series of conflicts dating back to the early stages of French colonialism and Japanese occupation of Vietnam in World War II. Younger men would not be called in that year until men in the 20-25 age group are called. Around 1966-67 tests were given to college students specifically to determine if they were academically qualified to be in college. During the next four years, the Selective Service inducted an average of around 300,000 young men annually--including a significant percentage of the 58,156 American troops who would die in the conflict. 5. Each day of the year would be selected by lottery. Ironically, as the draft continued to fuel the war effort, it also intensified the antiwar cause. The draft continued through war and peacetime until 1973. About three months ago, a different uncle who is not close to him told me a story that shook me pretty hard. Lower numbers were called first. The third Vietnam draft lottery was on ... like nearly 100,000 did during the Vietnam era. Although only 25 percent of the military force in the combat zones were draftees, the system of conscription caused many young American men to volunteer for the armed forces in order to have more of a choice of which division in the military they would serve. According to Christian Appy in, , “most of the Americans who fought in Vietnam were powerless, working-class teenagers sent to fight an undeclared war by presidents for whom they were not even eligible to vote.”, In July 1965, at the beginning of this steady escalation, President Johnson attempted to explain the need for increased military intervention in Vietnam in a press conference announcing that draft inductions would increase from 17,000 to 35,000 per month. But few realized… Ask Ted Nugent about doing meth and crapping his pants to avoid the draft. Between 1954-1964, from the end of the Korean War until the escalation in Vietnam, the “peacetime” draft inducted more than 1.4 million American men, an average of more than 120,000 per year. In October, at a campaign appearance in Ohio, Johnson promised that “we are not about to send American boys 9 or 10,000 miles away from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves.” But in the months after the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Johnson rapidly increased the U.S. military presence in the defense of South Vietnam, with 184,000 troops stationed there by the end of 1965. Ask MetaFilter is where thousands of life's little questions are answered. Bill Ayers, a UM student activist who was arrested in a 1965 sit-in at the Selective Service Office, discussed how conscription can actually benefit society in a 2015 interview. During the Vietnam War, young men gathered in college dorms and friends’ homes to listen to live TV and radio broadcasts of the U.S. A balloon is inflated to a pressure of 2.55 atm at a temperature of 25 °C. U.S. representative Alexander Pirnie draws the first capsule for the first Vietnam draft lottery (December 1, 1969). Answer for question: Your name: Answers. 1-43 (quotation p. 27). More than 10 million men entered military service through the Selective Service System during World War II alone. Draft evasion in the Vietnam War was a common practice in Australia and the United States. Antiwar activists viewed the draft as immoral and the only means for the government to continue the war with fresh soldiers. 6 comments. Conscription during the 1960s took place under the legal authority of the peacetime draft, because the United States never formally declared war on North Vietnam. On December 1, 1969, the first draft lottery since 1942 was held, at Selective Service National headquarters in Washington, D.C. During the Vietnam War, and Korea, WWII and WWI and the American Civil War 1861-1865, all able bodied men had to register for the draft. Fifty years ago — on December 1, 1969 — a lottery was held to begin drafting Americans into military service for The Vietnam War. In the first lottery, the birth dates of the candidates who would be called were decided and in the second lottery which was held on the same day as the first one, was used to choose the order of selection. For most of the war, all young men at age 18 were required to register for the draft. Avoiding the draft will be more difficult than it was for those in the Vietnam era. Selective Service System drawing lottery numbers to determine who would and would not be drafted. The Draft during the Vietnam war worked on birth dates. Interview of Bill Ayers by Obadiah Brown and Chris Haughey, March 26th, 2015. An Asia so threatened by Communist domination would certainly imperil the security of the United States itself.”, The military draft and the escalation of the Vietnam war played a major role in turning direct action resistance into a mass movement on college campuses in the mid-1960s, including at the University of Michigan. Bruce Springsteen is a man who needs little introduction. Before the lottery was implemented in the latter part of the Vietnam conflict, Local Boards called men classified 1-A, 18 1/2 through 25 years old, oldest first. The U.S. held its first draft lottery on Dec. 1, 1969, giving young men a random number tied to their birthdays. But few realized… The fourth incarnation of the draft came into being in 1940 through the Selective Training and Service Act. How did the draft work? The president rephrased the question in his own words: “Why must young Americans, born into a land exultant with hope and with golden promise, toil and suffer and sometimes die in such a remote and distant place?” Johnson lamented his responsibility “to send the flower of our youth, our finest young men, into battle” and said he knew “how their mothers weep and how their families sorrow.” But, he explained, America had no choice, because North Vietnam and Communist China sought to “conquer the South, to defeat American power, and to extend the Asiatic dominion of communism. A need for more manpower upon America’s deeper involvement in the Vietnam war in 1965, made President Johnson bring in conscription. pp. As part of their Cold War mission, many state universities required ROTC training by male students, although campus protests caused administrators to begin repealing mandatory ROTC in the late 1950s and early 1960s. While many soldiers did support the war, at least initially, to others the draft seemed like a death sentence: being sent to a war and fight for a cause that they did not believe in. 794-803. . Second, Ayers pointed out that an all-volunteer military has created a poor man’s army, because enlistment is attractive to individuals who have no other options because they are poor or uneducated. During the Vietnam draft, people would stay awake for days ahead of their medical screening, do a lot of illegal drugs, or otherwise make themselves appear generally unhealthy to avoid being draft. When was the draft reinstated for the Vietnam war? The Vietnam War is remembered for many reasons: the military and civilian casualties; the turmoil and bitter division of American society; the ignominious outcome. I’ve looked at many articles trying to understand how it works but it’s explained in a complicated way. At the outbreak of the Vietnam War, Harvard students were safe from the draft. Lyndon B. Johnson, “Remarks in Memorial Hall, Akron University,” October 21, 1964, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States. However, men of draft age are still required to register under the Military Selective Service Act. These were sort of like college board tests. In fact, most of the troops (about 2.5 million between 1964-1973) were volunteers. The Selective Service System underwent a dramatic overhaul in 1969. On January 6, 1966, SNCC issued a statement condemning the Vietnam War, charging that, “the United States government has been deceptive in its claims of concern for the freedom of the Vietnamese people.”Many members of state and national government denounced opposition to the war as being “close to treason.” 1. It was employed by the federal government of Us in five conflicts: The American Revolution, The American Civil War, Cold War, World War one & two and the Korean War. During that pivotal year, while UM professors organized the first Vietnam teach-in and Students for a Democratic Society launched the campus antiwar movement, the U.S. military drafted 230,991 more young men. There was one cutoff grade for undergraduate qualification and a higher one for graduate. Of the 2.5 million enlisted men who served during Vietnam, 80 percent came from poor or working-class families, and the same ratio only had a high school education. With the war in Vietnam as a backdrop – and the futures of some 850,000 young men (born between 1944-1950) on the line – the lottery featured a bin … Have children who need you. On these pages is a guide to the more important changes and their meaning to students, parents, others. Draft rules are undergoing the biggest shake-up in years, under a new law just signed by the President. Legal authority for a peacetime draft came from the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, signed by President Franklin Roosevelt in order to mobilize American civilian-soldiers in anticipation of entry into World War II. A no-exceptions Vietnam-era draft would have avoided, or diminished, The Military Draft During the Vietnam War, President John F. Kennedy, who began the escalation of the American military presence in Vietnam, also defended the peacetime draft and the Selective Service in 1962 statement, stating that “I cannot think of any branch of our government in the last two decades where there have been so few complaints about inequity.” One year later, the Pentagon acknowledged the usefulness of conscription, because one-third of enlisted soldiers and two-fifths of officers “would not have entered the service if not for the draft as a motivator.” The Selective Service also authorized deferments for men who planned to study for careers labeled as “vital” to national security interests, such as physics and engineering, which exacerbated the racial and socioeconomic inequalities of the Vietnam-era draft. Draft evasion in the Vietnam War was a common practice in Australia and the United States. i was just wondering how the draft worked back in vietnam. During the Vietnam War, and Korea, WWII and WWI and the American Civil War 1861-1865, all able bodied men had to register for the draft. i've heard somethign about lottery numbers from your social security number or something like that. I am very close to an uncle in my family who served (reluctantly) in Vietnam. College undergraduate and graduate students were automatically awarded draft … 2. All posts copyright their original authors. pp. In 1963, South Vietnamese generals seized power in Saigon in a coup. From 1940 until 1973, during both peacetime and periods of conflict, men were drafted to fill vacancies in the United States Armed Forces that could not be filled through voluntary means. In a 1965, article, experts unveiled the fear that the military was not receiving enough volunteers and. eli5: How did the Vietnam War draft lottery work? Apparently it did occur, because the Army was trying to. About three months ago, a different uncle who is not close to him told me a story that shook me pretty hard. Michael S. Foley, Confronting the War Machine: Draft Resistance during the Vietnam War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003), esp. On December 1, 1969, the nation watched as the draft for the Vietnam War was televised. The Vietnam draft lotteries functioned as a randomized experiment—which has allowed social scientists to study its life-changing effects. Approximately 850,000 men were affected by the 1969 draft lottery. On December 1, 1969, the first draft lottery since 1942 was held, at Selective Service National headquarters in Washington, D.C. The president rephrased the question in his own words: “, Why must young Americans, born into a land exultant with hope and with golden promise, toil and suffer and sometimes die in such a remote and distant place?” Johnson lamented his responsibility “to send the flower of our youth, our finest young men, into battle” and said he knew “how their mothers weep and how their families sorrow.” But, he explained, America had no choice, because North Vietnam and Communist China sought to “conquer the South, to defeat American power, and to extend the Asiatic dominion of communism. Elslager did not serve in Vietnam. It functioned through two lotteries. The third Vietnam draft lottery was on Aug. 5, 1971, for men born in 1952; in that year 95 birthdays were called up for compulsory service. The Draft in Context The military draft brought the war to the American home front. Men turning 21 in the year of the draft would be second priority, men turning 22 would be third, and so on until a man turns 26, at which time he is over the age of liability. 3. LBJ started his address by quoting a letter from an American mother asking why her son had to serve in Vietnam for a cause that she did not understand. The U.S. held its first draft lottery on Dec. 1, 1969, giving young men a random number tied to their birthdays. Although the Selective Service called relatively few … But a sense of shared purpose is tossed to the wind when there’s a perception of escape for the privileged. Michigan in the World features exhibitions of research conducted by undergraduate students about the history of the University of Michigan and its relationships beyond its borders. An Asia so threatened by Communist domination would certainly imperil the security of the United States itself.”, President LBJ discusses why theU.S. 1965-1973 Anti-Draft Movement . They believed Vietnam did not have the experience to rule itself. At the outbreak of the Vietnam War, Harvard students were safe from the draft. Lower numbers were called first. On Dec. 1, … President John F. Kennedy, who began the escalation of the American military presence in Vietnam, also defended the peacetime draft and the Selective Service in 1962 statement, stating that “I cannot think of any branch of our government in the last two decades where there have been so few complaints about inequity.” One year later, the Pentagon acknowledged the usefulness of conscription, because one-third of enlisted soldiers and two-fifths of officers “would not have entered the service if not for the draft as a motivator.” The Selective Service also authorized deferments for men who planned to study for careers labeled as “vital” to national security interests, such as physics and engineering, which exacerbated the racial and socioeconomic inequalities of the Vietnam-era draft. In a 1965 Michigan Daily article, experts unveiled the fear that the military was not receiving enough volunteers and recognized the need to make military service more attractive to well-educated Americans, not just to those who had no other option but enlistment or induction. As a result, North Vietnam became communist and South Vietnam based … (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003), esp. Why did the draft anger many Americans? Biden received five student draft deferments and a medical exemption. The November 1965 draft call was the largest since the Korean War. recent questions recent answers. hide. . 6. On December 1st, 1969, America's first military draft lottery since World War II was held. Among Vietnam’s legal draft “dodgers” were Trump, who stayed out of harm’s way thanks to “bone spurs” in his feet, and Bill Clinton, who used a marathon manipulation of deferments until the fighting ended. share. The 17th parallel split Vietnam in half. Confronting the War Machine: Draft Resistance during the Vietnam War. How did the Vietnam draft work prior to the first lottery in December 1969? During the Korean War, the Selective Service began the policy of granting deferments to college students with an academic ranking in the top half of their class. It was the country's first peacetime draft. This resulted in uncertainty for the potential draftees during the entire time they were within the draft-eligible age group. A democracy, backed by the United States, took the southern territory. College and even Canada won't be options. Before August 26, 1965, however, getting hitched was a Get Out of Vietnam Free card. Therefore, Americans in the era of the draft were much more actively engaged in politics and in questioning the true consequences of foreign policy decisions. From 1965 through 1972, the military draft profoundly affected the lives of millions of young men, inducting nearly two million and pres . Photo courtesy Selective Service System ­As w­e saw in the last section, the United States military normally operates using only volunteer troops. It worked by birthdays. Lyndon B. Johnson, “Remarks in Memorial Hall, Akron University,” October 21, 1964, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, 1964, Book II, pp. Join 6,466 readers in helping fund MetaFilter. Selective Service System, “Induction Statistics, <. recognized the need to make military service more attractive to well-educated Americans, not just to those who had no other option but enlistment or induction. He claimed that enlistment-or-jail stories (at least for the US Army) were an urban legend and never happened. How did Vietnam draft work? Vietnam Lotteries. This lottery marked the first time since World War II that the US drew numbers to determine who would serve in the military, and it came amid anti-war protests that showed how opposed young people were to selective service. . Finally, Nixon ended the draft in January 1973, but by then the war was almost over. During the Vietnam War era, between 1964 and 1973, the U.S. military drafted 2.2 million American men out of an eligible pool of 27 million. Although the Selective Service’s deferment system meant that men of lower socioeconomic standing were most likely to be sent to the front lines, no one was completely safe from the draft. Some sought refuge in college or parental deferments; others intentionally failed aptitude tests or otherwise evaded; thousands fled to Canada; the politically connected sought refuge in the National Guard; and a growing number engaged in direct resistance. Born in November 1942, Biden came of age amid the Vietnam War. The military draft and the escalation of the Vietnam war played a major role in turning direct action resistance into a mass movement on college campuses in the mid-1960s, including at the University of Michigan. I know the tests were given, but don't know if the results were really used or if the plan was aborted. How did Americans come to serve in Vietnam? Use our chart to find your lottery number. Springsteen dodged the Vietnam draft in the 1970s, and his guilt later fueled one of his best-known songs. In addition to being affected by Vietnam, the group born from 1947 to 1951 represented the beginning of the post- World War II baby boom. Significant draft avoidance was taking place even before the U.S. became heavily involved in the Vietnam War.The large cohort of Baby Boomers allowed for a steep increase in the number of exemptions and deferments, especially for college and graduate students. The Vietnam draft lotteries functioned as a randomized experiment—which has allowed social scientists to study its life-changing effects. Not to derail the question (very interesting question, btw) but what about looking at courthouse records for that year? Conscription during the 1960s took place under the legal authority of the peacetime draft, because the United States never formally declared war on North Vietnam. “Experts See Changes Needed in Draft Policy,” Michigan Daily, May 20 1965. Selective Service has an archive page explaining the system. Springsteen dodged the Vietnam draft in the 1970s, and his guilt later fueled one of his best-known songs. Bill Ayers, a UM student activist who was arrested in a 1965 sit-in at the Selective Service Office, discussed how conscription can actually benefit society in a 2015 interview. Almost every American was either eligible to go to war or knew someone who was. To instate a draft again, Congress must pass legislation to begin the process and the president must sign the legislation. thanks for your help. Americans came to serve in the Vietnam war because of the Military Draft system which as also known as the conscription. Vietnam War protestors around a fire in Washington, DC. save. For most of the war, all young men at age 18 were required to register for the draft. The military draft brought the war to the American home front. Anti-war activists recognized the draft lottery system did not produce truly random results. When contacted for this story, Elslager, who is now in his 70s, declined to talk about the draft lottery. Lyndon B. Johnson, “The President’s News Conference: Why Are We in Vietnam?” July 28, 1965, “Experts See Changes Needed in Draft Policy,”, International Days of Protest (October 1965), The Selective Service Office Sit-In (October 1965), Disrupting the University's Role in the Vietnam War, Legacies of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement, International Days of Protest (October 1965) →. From 1965 through 1972, the military draft profoundly affected the lives of millions of young men, inducting nearly two million and pres How Would the Draft Work if ... For that year 125 out of 365 possible birthdays were conscripted. The Vietnam War is remembered for many reasons: the military and civilian casualties; the turmoil and bitter division of American society; the ignominious outcome. During the Vietnam War era, between 1964 and 1973, the U.S. military drafted 2.2 … First, he argued, because the draft affects the people around an individual, they are more likely to pay attention to the foreign policy decisions being made by the government. also how did it work in WW2 and korea, was it the same? Bill Ayers says the draft made people, who were normally, unaware of U.S. foreign policy decisions, more concious to. Being drafted did NOT mean you were automatically going to be sent to Vietnam. This event determined the order of call for induction during calendar year 1970; that is, for registrants born between January 1, 1944, and December 31, 1950. How did the Vietnam draft work prior to the first lottery in December 1969? See answer bonnielove is waiting for your help. There was an arrest for something unrelated minor thing led to being caught extremely far behind on child support then I think, some messy allegations from his wife and he was given the option of jail or Vietnam. Neither the AF or Navy had to draft anyone in that era. is at war with Vietnam in a1968 speech entitled, "Why Are We in Vietnam?". Is where thousands of life 's little questions are answered than 10 million men entered military Service through the Service! They believed Vietnam did not have the experience to rule itself, ” Michigan Daily, 20... Inflated to a pressure of 2.55 atm at a temperature of 25 °C manpower! Questions are answered back in Vietnam something in the Vietnam era been covered in the 20-25 age group mean were... Navy had to draft anyone in that year until men in the local newspaper to him told me a that... At a temperature of 25 °C close to him told me a story that shook me pretty hard was... 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Anyone in that era, “ Induction Statistics, < https: //www.sss.gov/induct.htm >, April... With Vietnam in a1968 speech entitled, `` the Vietnam War was almost over War era, 1964! Ranges beginning at 21 and eventually lowering to age 18 believed Vietnam did not the... Story that shook me pretty hard there was one cutoff grade for qualification. Eli5: how did it work in WW2 and korea, was it the?... The legislation would not be drafted MetaFilter is a question and answer that... The next selected, those men born in November 1942, biden came of age amid the era. Johnson quietly changed the rules to keep up with the demands of the War to the draft be... ) is required to register for the first lottery in December 1969 college undergraduate and students. Legislation to begin the process and the President `` the Vietnam War ranges beginning at and. The next selected, those people would have been covered in the neighborhood of 9 million men military. In the U.S.A., became a symbol of patriotism in the U.S.A., became a symbol patriotism! System ­As w­e saw in the local newspaper for registration varied over the decades, ranging from eligible age beginning.

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