GS104 Lab 4 Answer Key - Mineral Identification Pre-Lab Reading Questions Color - wavelengths and appearance of reflected visible light Streak - color of a mineral in powdered form Luster - appearance of mineral in reflected light (metallic or nonmetallic) Density (Heft) - â¦ Many minerals share physical properties in common. View Mineral_Identification_SE_Key.pdf from SCIENCE 201 at University of South Carolina. Calcite is soft, and will not scratch glass. Minerals with a Metallic Luster . For example, the sulfides are based on the sufur ion, S2–. Use the mineral identification key (see Figure 1) to identify a mineral that is nonmetallic, dark colored, harder than glass, lacks cleavage, and is green in color. A mineral's habit (its general form) can be especially useful for identifying some minerals. Most minerals are about three times as dense as water; that is, they have a specific gravity of about 3. Terms in this set (16) Calcite (1) Comes in many white colors White streak Hardness = 3 3 directions of cleavage not at 90 degrees Nonmetallic-glassy luster Reacts to HCl. 2019 Mineral Identification Answer Key Vocabulary: crystal, density, hardness, luster, mass, mineral, streak, volume Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) Figure 3 shows one sample of quartz that is colorless and another quartz that is purple. Color: a. Close observation and perhaps a magnifying glass are all you need for this step in the mineral identification process. Flashcards. Mineral Identifier is a app used for identifying minerals using the optical properties of minerals, when studied in thin section using an optical microscope. â¦ Mineral Identification Lab. d. A mineral can only be subjected to a few tests before it degrades. To identify a mineral, you look at it closely. My 20th edition has Appendix I â Determinative Tables â which were very helpful before the days of online mineral identification keys. Carbonate minerals tend to dissolve relatively easily in water, especially acid water, and natural rain water is slightly acid. zoe_branch1. These are based on the carbonate ion, (CO3)2–. Taste can be used to identify evaporite minerals (minerals formed by evaporation) like halite or rock salt because they have distinctive tastes. Mixture of rust-like iron oxides. To use a key to identify minerals, you will be given a series of choices about the properties of a mineral. Itâs an awesome way to really learn to identify â¦ Some sulfides are mined as sources of such metals as zinc, lead, copper, and tin. All minerals have fracture. Composition Then determine the texture of the rock and based on the two, identify t he rock name. Some minerals, such as quartz, form smooth curved surfaces when they fracture. In the Mineral Identification Gizmoâ¢, under Choose property to test, select Density 1. Be careful, though. MINERAL IDENTIFICATION FLOW CHART Luster. This can be tested by seeing if a small magnet responds to the mineral. Use the largest mineral sample you can find. Mineral Identification Although nearly 2,500 minerals are known to occur within Earth's crust, most are rare with only about 100 occurring in abundance. Another important mineral identification technique is to determine a mineral's hardness. Minerals all have the same chemical structure. Halite breaks between layers of sodium and chlorine to form cubes with smooth surfaces (Figure 6). [Note: The purpose of these questions is to activate prior knowledge and get students thinking. The chemical formula and crystal lattice of a mineral can only be determined in a laboratory, but by examining a mineral and determining several of its physical properties, you can identify the mineral. There are 26 mineral samples to identify. Can you name a unique property that would allow you to instantly identify a mineral that’s been described quite a bit in this chapter? Luster describes the way light reflects off of the surface of the mineral. Except for the native element class, the chemical basis for classifying minerals is the anion, the negatively charged ion that usually shows up at the end of the chemical formula of the mineral. Limonite Uses Baby powder, paints, ceramics Iron ore White 1-Good Cleavage Those represent a single cleavage because the surfaces are all oriented in the same diretion. This mineral collection kit also includes an identification key, a description of each mineral specimen, various hands-on activity suggestions, a nail to test hardness, a streak plate to test color, and a magnifier to examine the luster and other textures within each mineral. Every other color, including blue, is called sapphire. Students are not expected to know the answers to the Prior Knowledge Questions.] Some minerals have other unique properties, some of which are listed in Table 3. Most rocks contain several minerals in a mixture characteristic of the particular rock type. Recall that a mineral is defined as naturally occurring. Minerals are classified according to their chemical properties. Figure 4. Scratched Talc by fingernail Scratched by penny Yellow Brown Earthy Fracture Earthy luster, yellow to almost black. How to Use Mineral Streak to Identify Rock Samples, Get to Know the 7 Delicate Sulfate Minerals, What You Need to Know Before You Buy a Rock Collection, A Few Rocks That Include Silicate Materials, B.A., Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire. Another special property is magnetism. A mineral is a naturally formed crystal. Although thousands of minerals in the earth have been identified, just ten minerals make up most of the volume of the earth’s crust—plagioclase, quartz, orthoclase, amphibole, pyroxene, olivine, calcite, biotite, garnet, and clay. Examples include iron oxides such as hematite, Fe2O3 and magnetite, Fe3O4, and pyrolusite, MgO. Then determine the texture of the rock and based on the two, identify t he rock name. Pyrite, for example, FeS2, is a sulfide mineral. Mineral Identification Lab. In between are a half-dozen other categories of luster that assess the degree of a mineral's transparency and reflectivity. Some minerals, like quartz, have no cleavage. Other minerals have many colors: (1) Quartz- clear, pink, purple, white, brown (2) Hematite- black, grey, reddish brown, dark red Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! If a mineral splinters like wood, it may be fibrous. The solid earth is made of rocks, which are made of minerals. a. Additionally, Some minerals come in many different colors. Massis the amount of substance in an object. The major classes of minerals are: Based on the polyatomic anion, (SiO4)4–, which has a tetrahedral shape. He works as a research guide for the U.S. Geological Survey. The exceptions are obsidian (which is made of volcanic glass) and coal (which is made of organic carbon.). A good guide to rock-forming minerals should list the most common, including hornblende and feldspar, or identify them by a common characteristic like metallic luster. The chemical formula is X 3 Y 2 Si 3 O 12. Complete, up-to-date, mineral database containing 4,714 mineral species descriptions and comprehensive picture library of images. Yellow-gold pyrite has a blackish streak, another indicator that pyrite is not gold, which has a golden yellow streak. Look It Up. Anhydrite, CaSO4, is a sulfate. Minerals with dull luster reflect very little light. Mineral Identification Guide Complete with photos and information about each mineralâs distinguishing characteristics, this mineral identification guide has been designed to assist you in identifying the minerals provided in the Deeper and Deeper and Mining Matters II kits. D 9. Calcite, CaCO3, and dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2, are carbonate minerals. Figure 1. Figure 6. The specific gravity of a substance compares its density to that of water. A close-up view of sodium chloride in a water bubble aboard the International Space Station. Minerals can cleave into polygons. Cleavage describes the way a mineral breaks. Mineral Identification Lab. 4 56 Mineral (Carbonate) Not metallic -- Bubbles in HCL. Mostly mineral "goethite." Identifying luster takes a little practice. It may break in sheets (one cleavage), splinters or prisms (two cleavages), cubes or rhombs (three cleavages) or something else. Learn. Quartz, for example, may be clear, white, gray, brown, yellow, pink, red, or orange. A mineral with visible layers, like Rhodochrosite, has a banded habit. 2019 Mineral Identification Answer Key Vocabulary: crystal, density, hardness, luster, mass, mineral, streak, volume Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) STUDY. Figure 2. Identify minerals based on their physical characteristics. Learn how to identify similar-looking rocks using the Moh's hardness scale. zoe_branch1. An example of such a special property is the effervescent reaction of calcite to a weak solution of hydrochloric acid (5% HCl). Cleavage is the tendency of a mineral to break along certain planes to make smooth surfaces. (b) Quartz is not sparkly and has a vitreous, or glassy, luster. Does it resemble the color of another common object, like bricks or blueberries? When found as red corundum, it is called ruby. A cleavage direction will show up as a smooth, shiny, evenly bright sheen of light reflected by one set of parallel surfaces on the mineral. Spell. b. The organization provides current information about rocks, minerals, metals, mining and the diverse career opportunities available in the minerals industry. Students can observe the color, luster, shape, density, hardness, streak, and reaction to acid for each mineral. All silicate minerals are built of silicon-oxygen tetrahedra (SiO4)4– in different bonding arrangements which create different crystal lattices. Observe and measure the properties of a mineral sample, and then use a key to identify the mineral. Standard names for luster include metallic, glassy, pearly, silky, greasy, and dull. Magnification may be required to see striations on plagioclase cleavage surfaces. The shape of a crystal follows the symmetry of its crystal lattice. Discover surprising insights and little-known facts about politics, literature, science, and the marvels of the natural world. However, their other properties they are completely different. 11)Many other more difficult tests can be performed once students understand the basic principles of identification. But a few minerals leave a distinctive streak that can be used to identify them. There are two complicating factors to remember here: (1) minerals do not always form nice crystals when they grow, and (2) a crystal face is different from a cleavage surface. A look at the different physical characteristics of minerals and how to use those characteristics to identify samples. In tables 1–3, hardness is measured on Mohs Hardness Scale. Make note if it displays any other special optical effects, such as iridescence or changes in color. Look at your Mineral Key. This outcome gives you the background needed to understand the terms used in identifying minerals. Double ... on mineral content or color, if you canât see minerals. Color is often useful, but should not be relied upon. Fizz refers to the effervescent reaction of certain carbonate minerals in the presence of an acid like vinegar. Fracture is breakage that is not flat, and there are two types: conchoidal (shell-shaped, as in quartz) and uneven. Look at your Mineral Key. A simple lesson on how to identify minerals is seen in this video. Mineral ID Kits for each station as listed below: 1 - Color vs. Streak - 8 mineral samples with different colors/streaks, streak plates, paper towels, magnifying glasses 2. Calcite fizzes or effervesces as the HCl solution dissolves it and creates CO2 gas. Stalactitic, botryoidal forms common. Find a mineral that has properties that match Sample A. Different minerals may be the same color. This outcome gives you the background needed to understand the terms used in identifying minerals. After you have completed all tests, name the minerals in Part 2 of this worksheet. Mineral Identification Observe and measure the properties of a mineral sample, and then use a key to identify the mineral. Metamorphic Rock Identification Chart stals, like sulfides. Some minerals can sicken you if ingested in sufficient quantities. Mineral Identification general and advanced 3 Science as Inquiry Grades 312 e) Fracture and other tests. Created by. Answer the question(s) below to see how well you understand the topics covered in the previous section. Figure 9. How to Identify Rocks and Minerals By Jan C. Rasmussen (Revised from a booklet by Susan Celestian) 2012 Donations for reproduction from: Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold Foundation Mineral Identification Worksheet. To understand rocks you need to become familiar with minerals and how they are identified. Maybe it's graphite? The amount of space an object takes up is described by its volume. Real gold, as seen in Figure 2, is very similar in color to the pyrite in Figure 1. Different types of non-metallic luster are described in Table 1. The Rock Key is much better for his input than it otherwise would have been. (Hint: It is most likely found on your dinner table.). _____ FIGURE 1. This lab will also introduce you to the deductive process where you will utilize the results of each property test to identify the name of the mineral from an established key. This mineral is shiny, very soft, heavy, and gold in color, and is actually gold. At a glance, calcite and quartz look similar. A broken kitchen tile or even a handy sidewalk can do. This short quiz does not count toward your grade in the class, and you can retake it an unlimited number of times. (c) Sulfur reflects less light than quartz, so it has a resinous luster. Take an unknown mineral and scratch it with an object of known hardness (like a fingernail or a mineral like quartz.) The Mineral Identification Key: Step 1: Is the Luster Metallic or Submetallic? You can identify a mineral by its properties. Some exotic or rare minerals are excluded to allow students to successfully identify lab samples. This Mineral Key is designed and intended for use on-line. Type the name under Mineral name in the Gizmo and press Submit. In some cases, the anion is of a mineral class is polyatomic, such as (CO3)2–, the carbonate ion. Another way to test magnetism is to see if your specimen attracts a compass needle. Earthy to metallic luster. Earthy to metallic luster. A mineral's magnetism can be another identifying characteristic in some instances. Always test for magnetism with a dark mineral—it's not hard. Hardness is the strength with which a mineral resists its surface being scraped or punctured. It may take several guesses to get it right. Have a pen and paper or a computer handy to record your notes. 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