Dry air from Earth's atmosphere contains 78.08% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and traces of hydrogen, helium, and other "noble" gases (by volume), but generally a variable amount of water vapor is also present, on average about 1% at sea level.. It is because of the heat created by the friction of the atmosphere that the space shuttle had to be equipped with a heat shield to prevent it from burning up as it re-entered the Earth's atmosphere. Wind picks up dust and other particles which, when they collide with the terrain, erode the relief and leave deposits (eolian processes). In space research and exploration, atmospheric drag affects both the entry into orbit via rocket … The second atmosphere began to develop around 2.7 billion years ago. The thermosphere extends from 85 km to the base of the exosphere at 400 km and contains the ionosphere, a region where the atmosphere is ionized by incoming solar radiation. Other bodies within the Solar System have extremely thin atmospheres not in equilibrium. The atmosphere is a gaseous envelope (with suspended liquids and solids) that surrounds the Earth and is held in place by gravity. The atmosphere of Earth is divided into several different layers. The troposphere begins at the surface and extends to between 7 km at the poles and 17 km at the equator, with some variation due to weather. This signifies a shift from a reducing atmosphere to an oxidizing atmosphere. We've arranged the synonyms in length order so that they are easier to find. The height at which the pressure from an atmosphere declines by a factor of e (an irrational number with a value of 2.71828...) is called the scale height and is denoted by H. For an atmosphere with a uniform temperature, the scale height is proportional to the temperature and inversely proportional to the product of the mean molecular mass of dry air and the local acceleration of gravity at that location. For Earth's atmosphere, see, "Atmospheric environment" redirects here. It keeps the average temperature of the earth steady. Atmosphere definition, the gaseous envelope surrounding the earth; the air: a weather balloon rising high into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is created by the earth’s magnetic field which emerges from the earth’s interior. Based on the relative volumes of the gases in Earth’s atmosphere, nitrogen is actually more than 3 times more than oxygen. For example, the large gravitational force of the giant planet Jupiter retains light gases such as hydrogen and helium that escape from objects with lower gravity. Three quarters of the atmosphere's mass resides within the troposphere, and is the layer within which the Earth's terrestrial weather develops. Moving upward from ground level, these layers are named the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere. The term stellar atmosphere describes the outer region of a star and typically includes the portion above the opaque photosphere. Unsurprisingly, diners at all levels reported that food was the most important factor in their decision to recommend a restaurant, but the atmosphere was a major consideration, at least for the upscale and luxury dining groups. Astronomy Cast offers a good episode about atmospheres around the Universe. The lowest layer is the troposphere, which extends from the surface to the bottom of the stratosphere. It is held near the surface of the planet by Earth's gravitational attraction. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Here the particles are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of km without colliding with one another. Check out the NASA page about the Earth’s atmosphere. Free oxygen did not exist until about 1.7 billion years ago and this can be seen with the development of the red beds and the end of the banded iron formations. The third atmosphere came into play when the planet began to stretch its legs, so to speak. Plate tectonics began constantly rearranging the continents about 3.5 billion years ago and helped to shape long-term climate evolution by allowing the transfer of carbon dioxide to large land-based carbonate stores. Earth's atmosphere consists of a number of layers that differ in properties such as composition, temperature and pressure. Climate changes can influence a planet's geological history. The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, retained by Earth's gravity, surrounding the planet Earth and forming its planetary atmosphere. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. The atmosphere is the blanket of gases which surrounds Earth. Objects that have no atmosphere, or that have only an exosphere, have terrain that is covered in craters. Atmospheres have dramatic effects on the surfaces of rocky bodies. Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and sulfur have been detected in the planet's inflated atmosphere.. Often during spring and summer, weather patterns cause giant dust devils, kicking up the oxidized iron dust that covers its surface, giving Mars its signature red hue. Thus, distant and cold Titan, Triton, and Pluto are able to retain their atmospheres despite their relatively low gravities. Most meteors burn up in this zone of the atmosphere. On planets where the primary heat source is solar radiation, excess heat in the tropics is transported to higher latitudes. When meteoroids do impact, the effects are often erased by the action of wind. Most meteoroids burn up as meteors before hitting a planet's surface. The mesosphere extends to about 85 km.  As a result, craters are rare on objects with atmospheres. The presence oxygen began to appear apparently from being released by photosynthesizing algae. A jacket for the planet Earth is a great planet to live on because it has a wonderful atmosphere around it. The ozone layer high in the Earth’s atmosphere blocks much of this radiation from reaching the surface. Wind erosion is a significant factor in shaping the terrain of rocky planets with atmospheres, and over time can erase the effects of both craters and volcanoes. For a biologist or paleontologist, the Earth's atmospheric composition is closely dependent on the appearance of the life and its evolution. It is thought that Venus and Mars may have lost much of their water when, after being photodissociated into hydrogen and oxygen by solar ultraviolet radiation, the hydrogen escaped. A planet's initial atmospheric composition is related to the chemistry and temperature of the local solar nebula during planetary formation and the subsequent escape of interior gases. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. For a meteorologist, the composition of the Earth's atmosphere is a factor affecting the climate and its variations. This creates a gravity field that shapes the atmosphere. See more. Atmosphere, the gas and aerosol envelope that extends from the ocean, land, and ice-covered surface of a planet outward into space. The atmosphere is the air that plants and animals breathe to survive. Secondly, the distance from the Sun determines the energy available to heat atmospheric gas to the point where some fraction of its molecules' thermal motion exceed the planet's escape velocity, allowing those to escape a planet's gravitational grasp. Although Mars' atmosphere used to be thick enough for water to run on the surface, today that water is either scarce or non-existent. The atmosphere of Earth is composed of nitrogen (about 78%), oxygen (about 21%), argon (about 0.9%), carbon dioxide (0.03%) and other gases in trace amounts. Troposphere. Definition of Atmosphere. Earth's magnetic field helps to prevent this, as, normally, the solar wind would greatly enhance the escape of hydrogen. While the atmosphere near the surface has a fairly homogeneous chemical composition, the abundance of gases changes at higher altitudes. Earth’s atmosphere is composed of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and one percent other gases. Besides providing us with something to breathe, the atmosphere helps make life on Earth possible in several ways. Here on Universe Today we have a great article about an alternative idea about the atmosphere’s origin. Auroras are caused by the bombardment of solar electrons on oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere. Earth's atmosphere is a jacket of gases that surrounds our planet. Its atmosphere is heated to temperatures over 1,000 K, and is steadily escaping into space. Atmosphere definition is - the gaseous envelope of a celestial body (such as a planet). While the atmosphere becomes thinner the higher you go, there is no clear line demarcating the atmosphere from space; however, the Karman line , at 100 km, is often regarded as the boundary between atmosphere and outer space. This is where the International Space Station orbits. The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and other gases (1%) that surrounds Earth. The atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% water vapor, and a minute amount of other trace gases like argon, and carbon monoxide. Each of the layers has a different lapse rate, defining the rate of change in temperature with height. Atmosphere's implementation uses a 32KB heap, which should not be exhaustible. [clarification needed]. The current composition of the Earth's atmosphere is the product of billions of years of biochemical modification of the paleoatmosphere by living organisms. Atmosphere's implementation has a total memory footprint roughly 0x28000 bytes smaller than Nintendo's. These planets have hydrogenâhelium atmospheres, with trace amounts of more complex compounds. The electrons literally excite the oxygen and nitrogen atoms high in the atmosphere to create the beautiful light show we know as an aurora. Stars with sufficiently low temperatures may have outer atmospheres with compound molecules. A reimplementation was added for the jpegdec system module (thanks @HookedBehemoth)! The KÃ¡rmÃ¡n line, located within the thermosphere at an altitude of 100 km, is commonly used to define the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space. However, atmospheres are not uniform in temperature, so estimation of the atmospheric pressure at any particular altitude is more complex. It is measured with a barometer. The atmosphere serves as a protective shield against radiation and cosmic rays. Join us at patreon.com/universetoday. The lower level is called the homosphere. Other mechanisms that can cause atmosphere depletion are solar wind-induced sputtering, impact erosion, weathering, and sequestrationâsometimes referred to as "freezing out"âinto the regolith and polar caps. For such a model atmosphere, the pressure declines exponentially with increasing altitude. The air is a poor conductor of heat. On Earth, units of air pressure are based on the internationally recognized standard atmosphere (atm), which is defined as 101.325 kPa (760 Torr or 14.696 psi). Because the troposphere is the lowest atmosphere layer, it contains 75 percent of the atmosphere’s mass. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The atmosphere on Mars may be much thinner than on Earth, but it remains intact enough to cause weather, clouds, and wind. The absorbed blue light is then radiated in every direction. The blue color of the sky is due to Rayleigh scattering which means as light moves through the atmosphere, most of the longer wavelengths pass straight through. The stratosphere, extending from the top of the troposphere to the bottom of the mesosphere, contains the ozone layer. When a planet generates a significant amount of heat internally, such as is the case for Jupiter, convection in the atmosphere can transport thermal energy from the higher temperature interior up to the surface. Over the vast history of Earth there have been three different atmospheres or one that has evolved in three major stages. Our atmosphere is the layers of gases surrounding the earth. The low temperatures and higher gravity of the Solar System's giant planetsâJupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptuneâallow them more readily to retain gases with low molecular masses. The ozone layer ranges in altitude between 15 and 35 km, and is where most of the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun is absorbed. The atmosphere protects us from this space junk that would do damage to us, to our homes, and to the earth itself. A literary technique, atmosphere is a type of feeling that readers get from a narrative, based on details such as setting, background, objects, and foreshadowing.A mood can serve as a vehicle for establishing atmosphere. The density of the atmosphere decreases outward, because the planet’s gravitational attraction, which pulls the gases and aerosols inward, is greatest close to the surface. Lighter molecules move faster than heavier ones with the same thermal kinetic energy, and so gases of low molecular weight are lost more rapidly than those of high molecular weight. Earth's atmosphere has a series of layers, each with its own specific traits. An atmosphere (from Ancient Greek ἀτμός (atmos), meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα (sphaira), meaning 'ball' or 'sphere' ) is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body. The exosphere gradually fades away into the realm of interplanetary space. The top of the mesosphere, ranges from 50 to 85 km, and is the layer wherein most meteors burn up. The atmosphere helps to protect living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation, solar wind and cosmic rays. The planet's atmospheres were then modified over time by various complex factors, resulting in quite different outcomes. Two satellites of the outer planets possess significant atmospheres. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This region consists of layers or shells of gases. The factors studied were staff attitude, atmosphere, timing (service), and food. 75% of the atmospheric mass is within 11 km of the surface. High above the planet, the atmosphere becomes thinner until it gradually reaches space. The stratosphere extends to about 51 km. See no ads on this site, see our videos early, special bonus material, and much more. The Brief Overview. Earth’s atmosphere has six layers: the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere, the ionosphere, and the exosphere. The atmosphere is an important part of what makes Earth livable. atmosphere - the weather or climate at some place; "the atmosphere was thick with fog" So, no matter where you look, you see the scattered blue light. Essentially, the atmosphere is is a collection of gases that makes the Earth habitable. An atmosphere is the layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body. ", "Hubble Probes Layer-cake Structure of Alien World's Atmosphere", Properties of atmospheric strata - The flight environment of the atmosphere. For the scientific journal, see, Layer of gases surrounding an astronomical body held by gravity, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Earth's Atmosphere Composition: Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon and CO2", "On Atmospheric Loss of Oxygen Ions from Earth Through Magnetospheric Processes", "Why an intrinsic magnetic field does not protect a planet against atmospheric escape", "Scientists Detected An Incoming Asteroid The Size Of A Car Last Week - Why That Matters To Us", "What Is The Atmosphere Like On Other Planets? How to use atmosphere in a sentence. The atmosphere may just look like one vast blue thing above, but a lot happens up there. The atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% water vapor, and a minute amount of other … The original atmospheres started with a rotating disc of gases that collapsed to form a series of spaced rings that condensed to form the planets. The sun bombards the solar system with ultraviolet radiation, and without protection, that radiation can cause severe damage to skin and eyes. Oxygen showed major ups and downs until reaching a steady state of more than 15%. Titan, a moon of Saturn, and Triton, a moon of Neptune, have atmospheres mainly of nitrogen. Essentially, the atmosphere is is a collection of gases that makes the Earth habitable. 3 letter words ATMOSPHERE 'ATMOSPHERE' is a 10 letter word starting with A and ending with E Synonyms, crossword answers and other related words for ATMOSPHERE We hope that the following list of synonyms for the word atmosphere will help you to finish your crossword today. The mass of the atmosphere is around 5×1018kg. Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), about an alternative idea about the atmosphere’s origin, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The thermosphere extends up to between 320 and 380 km. Mars is a planet that shows climate change on a large scale. Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude due to the diminishing mass of gas above. The depth of this layer varies between 17 km at the equator to 7 km at the poles. An atmosphere (from Ancient Greek á¼ÏÎ¼ÏÏ (atmos), meaning 'vapour', and ÏÏÎ±á¿ÏÎ± (sphaira), meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body. Earth and Titan are known to have liquids at their surface and terrain on the planet suggests that Mars had liquid on its surface in the past.  The net effect, taking the most important escape processes into account, is that an intrinsic magnetic field does not protect a planet from atmospheric escape and that for some magnetizations the presence of a magnetic field works to increase the escape rate..  Oxygen is used by most organisms for respiration; nitrogen is fixed by bacteria and lightning to produce ammonia used in the construction of nucleotides and amino acids; and carbon dioxide is used by plants, algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthesis. It keeps us warm, gives us oxygen to breathe, and it is where our weather happens. The first exoplanet whose atmospheric composition was determined is HD 209458b, a gas giant with a close orbit around a star in the constellation Pegasus. , The composition of Earth's atmosphere is largely governed by the by-products of the life that it sustains. Summary about Structure and Composition of Atmosphere. The atmosphere thins out in each higher layer until the gases dissipate in space. One of the main components of Earth’s interdependent physical systems is the atmosphere. Other astronomical bodies such as sun, moon, Mercury, etc have known atmospheres. During the day, it prevents a sudden increase in the temperature of the earth and prevents the heat to escape to the outer space during the night. Above it is the heterosphere or exosphere. This article is about an atmosphere of a celestial body. The atmosphere is divided into 5 major zones. Since a collection of gas molecules may be moving at a wide range of velocities, there will always be some fast enough to produce a slow leakage of gas into space. From the perspective of a planetary geologist, the atmosphere acts to shape a planetary surface. Without the atmosphere there could be no life on Earth. The exosphere is the last bastion of the atmosphere. Surface gravity differs significantly among the planets. The Earth’s atmosphere performs a couple of cool optical tricks. The circulation of the atmosphere occurs due to thermal differences when convection becomes a more efficient transporter of heat than thermal radiation. However, over the past 3 billion years Earth may have lost gases through the magnetic polar regions due to auroral activity, including a net 2% of its atmospheric oxygen. Conversely, studying the surface of the Earth leads to an understanding of the atmosphere and climate of other planets. These include the Moon (sodium gas), Mercury (sodium gas), Europa (oxygen), Io (sulfur), and Enceladus (water vapor). Join our 836 patrons! Venus's atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide with thick clouds of sulfur, which render the surface too hot to support any known form of life. The Earth's atmosphere is an extremely thin sheet of air extending from the surface of the Earth to the edge of space. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Atmosphere&oldid=991485324, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from April 2016, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2017, ÐÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÑÑÐºÐ°Ñ (ÑÐ°ÑÐ°ÑÐºÐµÐ²ÑÑÐ°)â, Srpskohrvatski / ÑÑÐ¿ÑÐºÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ²Ð°ÑÑÐºÐ¸, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 08:54. Like the rest of the planet, the atmosphere of Saturn is made up approximately 75% hydrogen and 25% helium, with trace amounts of other substances like water ice … The ionosphere increases in thickness and moves closer to the Earth during daylight and rises at night allowing certain frequencies of radio communication over a greater range. Without an atmosphere, the planet has no protection from meteoroids, and all of them collide with the surface as meteorites and create craters. It is only the thing that keeps you from being burned to death every day, helps to bring the rain that our plants need to survive, no to mention it holds the oxygen that you need to breath. The temperature here can rise to 1,500 °C. The atmosphere is also responsible for the aurora borealis. Atmospheric pressure at a particular location is the force per unit area perpendicular to a surface determined by the weight of the vertical column of atmosphere above that location. All of these gases combine to absorb ultraviolet radiation from the Sun and warm the planet’s surface through heat retention. [/caption]What is the atmosphere? The effects of reentry can be felt at 120 km. The exosphere is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium. The atmosphere is made up of mostly nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%). The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation). The exosphere begins variously from about 690 to 1,000 km above the surface, where it interacts with the planet's magnetosphere. The atmospheres of the planets Venus and Mars are primarily composed of carbon dioxide, with small quantities of nitrogen, argon, oxygen and traces of other gases. There are lots of other gases that are part of the atmosphere, but in much smaller amounts. The easiest way to think about the atmosphere above our planet is to imagine an invisible shield that protects our planet from all the bad stuff that floats around in the universe. When in the part of its orbit closest to the Sun, Pluto has an atmosphere of nitrogen and methane similar to Triton's, but these gases are frozen when it is farther from the Sun. Earth's atmosphere is the only one in the solar system capable of supporting life. These include argon, carbon dioxide, neon, helium, hydrogen, and more. Frost and precipitations, which depend on the atmospheric composition, also influence the relief. Earth's atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds our home planet. 004 - The AtmosphereIn this video Paul Andersen explains how the atmosphere surrounds the planet. The first atmosphere came into being as a result of a major rainfall over the entire planet that caused the build up of a major ocean. The atmosphere is a protective layer that safeguards the earth from the harsh conditions of the solar system. The Earth is a sphere with a roughly 8000 mile diameter; the thickness of the atmosphere is about 60 miles. It is divided into five layers.Most of the weather and clouds are found in the first layer.. Very little of the red, orange and yellow light is affected by the air; however, much of the shorter wavelength light(blue) is absorbed by the gas molecules. In addition, since liquids can not exist without pressure, an atmosphere allows liquid to be present at the surface, resulting in lakes, rivers and oceans. The atmosphere is very thin compared to the size of the Earth. The mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere layer wherein most meteors burn up in this zone of the outer of. 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