how did the vietnam draft work

Don't know if the intent was to weed out people who were claiming to be in college when they were clearly incapable of the work, or to "preserve" the better students. As part of their Cold War mission, many state universities required ROTC training by male students, although campus protests caused administrators to begin repealing mandatory ROTC in the late 1950s and early 1960s. During the Vietnam War, young men gathered in college dorms and friends’ homes to listen to live TV and radio broadcasts of the U.S. The Vietnam War is remembered for many reasons: the military and civilian casualties; the turmoil and bitter division of American society; the ignominious outcome. On December 1, 1969, the first draft lottery since 1942 was held, at Selective Service National headquarters in Washington, D.C. Use our chart to find your lottery number. The military draft and the escalation of the Vietnam war played a major role in turning direct action resistance into a mass movement on college campuses in the mid-1960s, including at the University of Michigan. Bruce Springsteen is a man who needs little introduction. Younger men would not be called in that year until men in the 20-25 age group are called. How did the draft work? During the Vietnam War, the U.S. In October, at a campaign appearance in Ohio, Johnson promised that “we are not about to send American boys 9 or 10,000 miles away from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves.” But in the months after the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Johnson rapidly increased the U.S. military presence in the defense of South Vietnam, with 184,000 troops stationed there by the end of 1965. It went from WWII to Vietnam. Congress approved the decision to establish a lottery and on Nov. 26, 1969 — just five days before the lottery — Nixon signed the measure into law. While many soldiers did support the war, at least initially, to others the draft seemed like a death sentence: being sent to a war and fight for a cause that they did not believe in. An Asia so threatened by Communist domination would certainly imperil the security of the United States itself.”, President LBJ discusses why theU.S. There was one cutoff grade for undergraduate qualification and a higher one for graduate. Although only 25 percent of the military force in the combat zones were draftees, the system of conscription caused many young American men to volunteer for the armed forces in order to have more of a choice of which division in the military they would serve. Japan had ruled the country since 1940, and France had ruled it since 1887. How would you have done in the 1970 Vietnam draft lottery, in a drawing held the night of December 1, 1969, and carried live over the radio and television? He claimed that enlistment-or-jail stories (at least for the US Army) were an urban legend and never happened. The war had arisen from a series of conflicts dating back to the early stages of French colonialism and Japanese occupation of Vietnam in World War II. They believed Vietnam did not have the experience to rule itself. Therefore, Americans in the era of the draft were much more actively engaged in politics and in questioning the true consequences of foreign policy decisions. Americans came to serve in the Vietnam war because of the Military Draft system which as also known as the conscription. But few realized… Photo courtesy Selective Service System ­As w­e saw in the last section, the United States military normally operates using only volunteer troops. This event determined the order of call for induction during calendar year 1970; that is, for registrants born between January 1, 1944, and December 31, 1950. What temperature (in °C) is required to maintain the same volume if the pressure decreases to 1.39 atm? Citations for this page (individual document citations are at the full document links). They still are. This resulted in uncertainty for the potential draftees during the entire time they were within the draft-eligible age group. Selective Service System, “Induction Statistics, , accessed April 26, 2015. The Military Draft During the Vietnam War, President John F. Kennedy, who began the escalation of the American military presence in Vietnam, also defended the peacetime draft and the Selective Service in 1962 statement, stating that “I cannot think of any branch of our government in the last two decades where there have been so few complaints about inequity.” One year later, the Pentagon acknowledged the usefulness of conscription, because one-third of enlisted soldiers and two-fifths of officers “would not have entered the service if not for the draft as a motivator.” The Selective Service also authorized deferments for men who planned to study for careers labeled as “vital” to national security interests, such as physics and engineering, which exacerbated the racial and socioeconomic inequalities of the Vietnam-era draft. I am very close to an uncle in my family who served (reluctantly) in Vietnam. A little detail: As I recall, circa '66- 70, if you were in college then you were safe from the draft. Lower numbers were called first. 1-43 (quotation p. 27). Before August 26, 1965, however, getting hitched was a Get Out of Vietnam Free card. Selective Service inductionstatistics during the VietnamWar era. A lottery drawing – the first since 1942 – was held on December 1, 1969, at Selective Service National Headquarters in Washington, D.C. i was just wondering how the draft worked back in vietnam. During the Vietnam draft, people would stay awake for days ahead of their medical screening, do a lot of illegal drugs, or otherwise make themselves appear generally unhealthy to avoid being draft. I was present (around 2003) at an on-the-record interview of a serving US Army colonel in which he talked (amongst other things) about the history of US Army recruitment practices. The Draft in Context The military draft brought the war to the American home front. Antiwar activists viewed the draft as immoral and the only means for the government to continue the war with fresh soldiers. Join 6,466 readers in helping fund MetaFilter. In fact, most of the troops (about 2.5 million between 1964-1973) were volunteers. The 17th parallel split Vietnam in half. College undergraduate and graduate students were automatically awarded draft … With the war in Vietnam as a backdrop – and the futures of some 850,000 young men (born between 1944-1950) on the line – the lottery featured a bin … Before the lottery was implemented in the latter part of the Vietnam conflict, Local Boards called men classified 1-A, 18 1/2 through 25 years old, oldest first. The draft was abolished in 1973. Draft evasion in the Vietnam War was a common practice in Australia and the United States. eli5: How did the Vietnam War draft lottery work? 4. Biden received five student draft deferments and a medical exemption. A democracy, backed by the United States, took the southern territory. Indeed, his biggest-selling album, Born In The U.S.A., became a symbol of patriotism in the 1980s. First, he argued, because the draft affects the people around an individual, they are more likely to pay attention to the foreign policy decisions being made by the government. On Dec. 1, … About three months ago, a different uncle who is not close to him told me a story that shook me pretty hard. Ho Chi Minh, backed by China and Russia, took the northern territory. Being drafted did NOT mean you were automatically going to be sent to Vietnam. Conscription in the United States, commonly known as the draft, has been employed by the federal government of the United States in six conflicts: the American Revolutionary War, the American Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War.The fourth incarnation of the draft came into being in 1940 through the Selective Training and Service Act. On these pages is a guide to the more important changes and their meaning to students, parents, others. How did the Vietnam draft work prior to the first lottery in December 1969? According to Christian Appy in Working-Class War, “most of the Americans who fought in Vietnam were powerless, working-class teenagers sent to fight an undeclared war by presidents for whom they were not even eligible to vote.”. I know the tests were given, but don't know if the results were really used or if the plan was aborted. The president rephrased the question in his own words: “Why must young Americans, born into a land exultant with hope and with golden promise, toil and suffer and sometimes die in such a remote and distant place?” Johnson lamented his responsibility “to send the flower of our youth, our finest young men, into battle” and said he knew “how their mothers weep and how their families sorrow.” But, he explained, America had no choice, because North Vietnam and Communist China sought to “conquer the South, to defeat American power, and to extend the Asiatic dominion of communism. Buffeted by protests against the war and the unfairness of the draft system, which also took a disproportionate number of African-American men, President Richard Nixon sought to reform the draft. I don't know the particulars of the draft but FWIW, a family friend told us a similar story about enlisting in the late sixties. In addition to being affected by Vietnam, the group born from 1947 to 1951 represented the beginning of the post- World War II baby boom. The November 1965 draft call was the largest since the Korean War. To instate a draft again, Congress must pass legislation to begin the process and the president must sign the legislation. During the Vietnam War, and Korea, WWII and WWI and the American Civil War 1861-1865, all able bodied men had to register for the draft. In a 1965 Michigan Daily article, experts unveiled the fear that the military was not receiving enough volunteers and recognized the need to make military service more attractive to well-educated Americans, not just to those who had no other option but enlistment or induction. Neither the AF or Navy had to draft anyone in that era. is at war with Vietnam in a1968 speech entitled, "Why Are We in Vietnam?". A need for more manpower upon America’s deeper involvement in the Vietnam war in 1965, made President Johnson bring in conscription. Indeed, his biggest-selling album, Born In The U.S.A., became a symbol of patriotism in the 1980s. Lyndon B. Johnson, “The President’s News Conference: Why Are We in Vietnam?” July 28, 1965, “Experts See Changes Needed in Draft Policy,”, International Days of Protest (October 1965), The Selective Service Office Sit-In (October 1965), Disrupting the University's Role in the Vietnam War, Legacies of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement, International Days of Protest (October 1965) →. But unlike millions of … Coming of age doesn’t come close to holding the same meaning as it did for the nearly 72 million “baby boomers” born into the Vietnam era draft. Legal authority for a peacetime draft came from the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, signed by President Franklin Roosevelt in order to mobilize American civilian-soldiers in anticipation of entry into World War II. Born in November 1942, Biden came of age amid the Vietnam War. In 1963, South Vietnamese generals seized power in Saigon in a coup. There was an arrest for something unrelated minor thing led to being caught extremely far behind on child support then I think, some messy allegations from his wife and he was given the option of jail or Vietnam. The fourth incarnation of the draft came into being in 1940 through the Selective Training and Service Act. Bill Ayers, a UM student activist who was arrested in a 1965 sit-in at the Selective Service Office, discussed how conscription can actually benefit society in a 2015 interview. When did the military draft end? Michigan in the World features exhibitions of research conducted by undergraduate students about the history of the University of Michigan and its relationships beyond its borders. 6. recent questions recent answers. Selective Service System, “Induction Statistics, <. Ask MetaFilter is a question and answer site that covers nearly any question on earth, where members help each other solve problems. pp. LBJ started his address by quoting a letter from an American mother asking why her son had to serve in Vietnam for a cause that she did not understand. Add your answer and earn points. Many have been digitized and are available online. The Vietnam draft lotteries functioned as a randomized experiment—which has allowed social scientists to study its life-changing effects. Anti-war activists recognized the draft lottery system did not produce truly random results. Vietnam War protestors around a fire in Washington, DC. The Vietnam generation came of age with the threat of military service hovering in the background. The draft received even more resistance as dissenters became more frustrated with the system. During the next four years, the Selective Service inducted an average of around 300,000 young men annually--including a significant percentage of the 58,156 American troops who would die in the conflict. pp. It was employed by the federal government of Us in five conflicts: The American Revolution, The American Civil War, Cold War, World War one & two and the Korean War. Not to derail the question (very interesting question, btw) but what about looking at courthouse records for that year? Significant draft avoidance was taking place even before the U.S. became heavily involved in the Vietnam War.The large cohort of Baby Boomers allowed for a steep increase in the number of exemptions and deferments, especially for college and graduate students. Vietnam Lotteries. Around 1966-67 tests were given to college students specifically to determine if they were academically qualified to be in college. 1965-1973 Anti-Draft Movement . The military draft brought the war to the American home front. From 1965 through 1972, the military draft profoundly affected the lives of millions of young men, inducting nearly two million and pres The World War I Draft Topic Page on the Library of Congress Chronicling America website provides examples of newspapers as major vehicles for notification of draft registration days and regulations. How the new law will work. pp. How did the draft work? At the outbreak of the Vietnam War, Harvard students were safe from the draft. It functioned through two lotteries. Lower numbers were called first. LBJ started his address by quoting a letter from an American mother asking why her son had to serve in Vietnam for a cause that she did not understand. The Selective Service System underwent a dramatic overhaul in 1969. College undergraduate and graduate students were automatically awarded draft … Although the Selective Service’s deferment system meant that men of lower socioeconomic standing were most likely to be sent to the front lines, no one was completely safe from the draft. This resulted in uncertainty for the potential draftees during the entire time they were within the draft-eligible age group. Of the 2.5 million enlisted men who served during Vietnam, 80 percent came from poor or working-class families, and the same ratio only had a high school education. Fifty years ago — on December 1, 1969 — a lottery was held to begin drafting Americans into military service for The Vietnam War. Selective Service System did radio and TV broadcasts of draft lottery numbers. In July 1965, at the beginning of this steady escalation, President Johnson attempted to explain the need for increased military intervention in Vietnam in a press conference announcing that draft inductions would increase from 17,000 to 35,000 per month. It worked by birthdays. Before the lottery was implemented in the latter part of the Vietnam conflict, Local Boards called men classified 1-A, 18 1/2 through 25 years old, oldest first. How Would the Draft Work if ... For that year 125 out of 365 possible birthdays were conscripted. President Lyndon B. Johnsonincreased the number of U.S. personnel in South Vietnam due to the political instability in the c… Ironically, as the draft continued to fuel the war effort, it also intensified the antiwar cause. Almost every American was either eligible to go to war or knew someone who was. From 1940 until 1973, during both peacetime and periods of conflict, men were drafted to fill vacancies in the United States Armed Forces that could not be filled through voluntary means. According to Christian Appy in, , “most of the Americans who fought in Vietnam were powerless, working-class teenagers sent to fight an undeclared war by presidents for whom they were not even eligible to vote.”, In July 1965, at the beginning of this steady escalation, President Johnson attempted to explain the need for increased military intervention in Vietnam in a press conference announcing that draft inductions would increase from 17,000 to 35,000 per month. In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson changed the draft law to allow married males to be drafted, if they didn’t have children. For most of the war, all young men at age 18 were required to register for the draft. Kept intact for 2 years Service domination would certainly imperil the security of the War effort, it intensified. 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